Category Archives: Innovation

In the present demanding market, where a constant search for foods with high benefit-quality ratio is increasingly taking place, the innovation possibilities often lie in the most common and versatile everyday foods, such as the egg.

Used in almost every aspect of the gastronomy, from confectionery to soups, an egg is an important ally for all chefs and kitchen households. An egg alone is one of the most nutritious and appreciated foods on the planet. It is a high protein and low carb intake food, excellent for those who want a simple, easy and healthy snack, such as the common hard-boiled version. In fact, a whole egg contains a relevant amount of several important vitamins and minerals.

The nutritious egg – the forgotten superfood?

Along with milk, eggs contain the highest biological value for protein. One egg has only 75 calories but 7 grams of high-quality protein, 5 grams of fat, and 1.6 grams of saturated fat. According to the reference daily intake (RDI) nutrient values for a healthy adult, a large egg has vitamin A (19% RDI), responsible for immune system and good vision maintenance and a set of B vitamins, such as riboflavin (42% RDI), pantothenic acid (28% RDI), pyridoxine (9% RDI), folate (11% RDI) and cobalamin (46% RDI), essential for cell division processes and mental health.

Egg yolks are one of the few foods that naturally contain vitamin D (15% RDI), essential for strong bones and muscles, as well as overall health. In fact, the majority of the egg’s vitamins and minerals are located within the yolk. Vitamin E, iron, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are also found in relevant concentrations in the egg.

The high quality proteins of the egg, essentially albumins, mucoproteins and globulins, contain a set of essential amino-acids like leucine, tryptophan, methionine and other non-essential aminoacids, which will act as precursor molecules in human metabolism. It is also noteworthy the high concentration of choline (60% RDI), an essential vitamin-like nutrient involved in the metabolism of molecules necessary for good neural-muscle function and its control in humans. For muscle building and fitness athletes the ingestion of these nutrients is of extreme importance for cell regeneration and muscle growth.

Cholesterol is perhaps the most controversial nutrient in the egg, one large egg containing more than two thirds of the RDI for this nutrient, currently set at 300 mg. However, several recent studies showed that there is no significant correlation between the egg’s cholesterol and an increase of blood harmful LDL cholesterol levels in healthy humans. The ingestion of one whole egg a day, preferably hard-boiled, is recurrently suggested by nutritionists and medical specialists as an important incorporation in one’s diet.

One whole egg contains an impressive set of nutrients in quite relevant concentrations.

The egg market

From over the 75 million tons of eggs produced worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region represents the biggest market for egg and egg products, being India, Indonesia, Japan and China the key players due to its population and economic growth over the last decades. China alone is responsible for almost 40% of both worldwide production and consumption. North and Latin American regions are also important markets regarding egg products, with USA leading the charts, followed by Mexico and Brazil.

In the European context, according to the last stats of the European Commission for Agriculture and Rural Development, more than 7 million tons of eggs were produced in 2018 within the economic space, where 7 of the 28 members, France, Germany, Spain, Italy and UK, were responsible for over 80% of the total production. If the Russian and Turkey markets were to be included (European countries not in EU) the Economic European Space market would represent twice its actual numbers regarding the egg production and consumption. The Portuguese case represents a modest percentage, with only 0,1 million tons of eggs produced for consumption in the last year. Although lifestyle tendencies such as veganism or higher healthcare awareness are rising in popularity, these do not seem to be threatening the growing tendency of the egg market, especially in the Asian continent.

From farm to table

An average person consumes 180 eggs per year. The majority of these eggs (about 50%) are produced by enriched feed hens in cages followed by barn-raised hens (26%), free range hens (14%) and organic feed hens (5%). The difference between all these eggs raising hens are concerned to their diet and growth space.

Eggshell size, form and specially color are commonly associated by consumers as main characteristics for egg quality, however, this is only dependent on the hens’ breed, size and feed.

Whiter breeds tend to lay white eggs while darker ones tend to lay browner eggshells. As for the yolk, the same applies, being the hens’ diet the major factor responsible for its color. While grain-fed chickens produce pale-yellow yolks, hens fed with rich pigmented and nutritious food from insects, vegetables, fruits and grasses produce deep orange yolks. The real egg quality is given by the age of the hen and its feeding over the growing process, where older hens tend to lay thinner eggshells and shorter shelf-life eggs than younger and nutrient controlled-feed hens.

The hen’s nutrition plays the major role in the colour of the final egg yolk.

Applications beyond breakfast

From cosmetic industry to medicine, the egg components are used in a wide range of areas for remarkably different goals. Nowadays it is easy to find different forms of whole egg, yolk or egg white in retail stores, ranging from solid to concentrated, crystalized, frozen or deep-frozen states. From the yolk is extracted its oil, consisting mainly of triglycerides and other elements, such as lecithin, cholesterol, biotin and xanthopylls. This non-allergic oil becomes free from egg proteins and is therefore allowed for use in cosmetics or dermatological products for hair fall, eczemas or dermatitis. The natural pigments (xanthopylls) present in the yolk, lutein (E161b) and zeaxanthin (E161h), are also of high interest for the pharmaceutical and food industry for their attractive yellow and orange colors.

Lecithin (E322) was actually first isolated from the egg yolk in 1846 by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Gobley. This product is currently in high demand due to its emulsifying, lubricant and stabilizing properties, which were commonly obtained with the use of soybean oil. However, EU legislation has been inciting the use of allergen-free natural lecithin food sources, minimizing the use of soybean. Lecithin is also a molecule used in a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to its stabilizing capacities and choline enrichment.

Eggs are also used as ingredients for alcoholic drinks, as in the case of the famous eggnog, or as clarifying agents for superior category wines and rich broths. In the pharmaceutical sector, the egg has been used for over 70 years in the manufacturing of flu vaccines due to its concentration of albumins, mucoproteins and other globulins. The eggshells are also a valuable resource for organic agriculture as a source of natural calcium.

The numerous shapes that the egg can assume are a clear representation of its high acceptance and versatility, with verified health benefits at an affordable price.

CFER Labs is your partner in food R&D. Obtain your free of charge workplan by clicking here.

Sources
http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/markets/index
https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/processed-egg-market
https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/egg-products-market.html
Miranda, J. M. et al, (2015), Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods, Nutrients, vol. 7, 706-729.
Garcés-Rimon M. et al., (2015) Egg protein hydrolysates: New culinary textures, International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, vol. 3, 17-22.
Wu Jianping et al., (2014) Eggs and Egg product processing, Food Processing: Principles and Applications, published by John Wiley & Sons,  2nd edition, chapter 19, 437-455.

The final countdown has started and with only a few days to go until we welcome 2019, it’s now time to begin the preparations for the last night of the year. There are a few things to cross off the list like rethink our New Year’s Eve resolutions after another year of messing up, stock up the pantry with raisins, have the loved ones around, organize the fireworks and invite that friend good at blowing up things and… sort out the sparkling wine! People have different ways of celebrating the start of the new year depending on the culture and traditions, but one thing seems to be always in our hand after midnight regardless of who and where we are and it is a glass of sparkling wine. Bubbles seem to sparkle the moments of celebration and on this article we will explore the ‘when, what and why’ of this festive drink.

England or France? The paradox.

Just like many other happy accidents throughout the human history, sparkling wine could be the penicillin of the wine world as there are records of incidental fizziness since Biblical times. However, the product owes its existence mainly to the development of technology unrelated to the production of the wine itself. We must ignore all the faults, accidents and the effervescence attributed to the phases of the moon and focus on the year of 1662 when Christopher Merret stated to the Royal Society in London “our wine-coopers of recent times use vast quantities of sugar and molasses to all sorts of wines to make them drink brisk and sparkling”.

There is an erroneous believe that Dom Pérignon invented sparkling wine in the late 1690s, but Merret’s report a few decades earlier is the first documented proof that still wine was intentionally turned into sparkling by adding sugar and molasses and by that time only England had the required technology to make it: the ability to produce stronger glass and the reintroduction of cork as closures.

A strong glass bottle able to withstand the high pressure of sparkling wine is mandatory and England was able to produce it in the early 1600s by using coal-fired glass furnaces at much higher temperature instead of wood-fired ones used in France, only able to produce structurally weaker glass. Also, it is essential to use a closure able to withhold the pressure and back in the XVII century it was cork. Cork was lost during the decline of the Roman Empire and only rediscovered by France in 1685 at the earliest, but England was shipping bottled wine from France sealed with corks decades earlier in the XVI century.

England had advanced glass technology in the early XVII century, which led the country to surpass the French competition.

It is clear that England had the knowledge and the means to produce and preserve the effervescence of a sparkling wine, the paradox (and what makes everything much exciting!) is the fact that they were making it with wines shipped from… Champagne! The primary fermentation in this cold region in the north of France would prematurely stop because of the low temperatures late in the season and naturally restart a few months later in the warmer spring days.

The process

It took a few decades to get to the product with the characteristics as we know in our days, essentially to understand and optimize the science behind the effervescence and establish the relation between the sugar required to the second fermentation to produce a certain amount of carbon dioxide (pressure). In our days there are strict legislation to produce this special wine, with the OIV stating that a sparkling is a wine supersaturated in carbon dioxide (CO2) from an exclusive endogenous origin (secondary fermentation), resulting in an excess pressure of this gas in the bottle of at least 3.5bars at 20°C (68ºF) or 3.0bars for bottles less than 0.25L.

The production of sparkling wine can be separated in two main stages: base wine production and second fermentation/ageing. The base wine production follows the general principles of a white wine, with the particularity that the grapes are harvested earlier in the season to retain a higher acidity (essential to the freshness and balance) and have a lower sugar content (potential alcohol normally under 11%). Once musts have fermented to dryness and the wines are filtered, stabilized and eventually fined, they are ready to the second stage: blending, second fermentation and ageing.

Blending or preparing the cuvée is generally a critical moment to define the quality of the wine and to which winemakers pay great attention.

It consists on blending wines from different vintages, sites, varieties or even press fractions, to achieve desired characteristics and consistency. The cuvée is ready for the second fermentation once the tirage liquor is added: the required sugar to achieve 5-6bars of pressure in bottle (±4g/L → 1bar) and yeast.

Most of the sparkling wine, and particularly the premium quality sparkling, is produced by the Traditional Method or Méthode Champenoise (Champagne), where the second fermentation occurs in bottle. This is followed by ageing on lees for a certain period of time (variable), removal of yeast lees and sediments by riddling and disgorging, dosage and corking. The dosage permits topping up the bottles after disgorging and adjust the final desired sugar level by adding a more or less sweet wine/syrup (tirage liquor). Along with the production method, the final sugar level of the sparkling wine is the base of one of the classification systems:

Brut Nature – 0-3g/L
Extra Brut – 0-6g/L
Brut – 0-12g/L
Extra-dry – 12-17g/L
Dry – 17-32
Demi-sec – 32-50
Sweet (Doux) – more than 50g/L

The Traditional Method has the particularity that the bottle where the second fermentation occurs is same that reaches the consumer. There’s no discussion possible when it comes to the high quality wines produced by this method, notably the fine bubbles produced and the bouquet developed during ageing on lees, but it is labour intensive and time demanding and during the 20th century other methods and technologies were developed in order to minimize the production costs. In the Transfer Method the sparkling benefits from fermentation and ageing on lees in bottle, but riddling and disgorging steps are eliminated as the bottles are then emptied to a tank under isobaric pressure for filtration, dosage and bottling. The Charmat Method took another step forward on bringing the production costs down by allowing lower quality sparkling production entirely in stainless steel tanks, with the wine being bottled only when it is finished and ready for sale.

The Traditional Method is tipically employed in higher quality sparkling wines such as Champagne.

Innovation and future of sparkling wine

When it comes to new technologies developed in recent decades, I have to mention the use of immobilized yeast in sparkling wine production as the Portuguese company Proenol has pioneered the industrial production of immobilized yeast in the world. The immobilization of yeast in a calcium alginate matrix allows the wine to remain clear and when used in the Traditional Method it will shorten the riddling time from several days/weeks to a few seconds with the beads settling immediately.

Sparkling wine production worldwide is on the rise and has seen the biggest growth in terms of volume and value in recent years. Between 2003 and 2013 there was an increase in 40% of production and by 2017 it accounted for 8% by volume and 19% by value in the world wine trade.

I love a good sparkling, but I have to admit that I’m not the greatest enthusiast of bubbles. However, it was my passport to the wine world and I honestly find fascinating the whole process of traditional sparkling wine production and the short but intensive history of the wine. Won’t complain if I spend the first moments of 2019 sipping again ‘Millésime Bruto 2013’ by Ataíde Semedo, the last great Espumante that I had the pleasure to drink. From Bairrada, of course. Salut!

The beverage industry is pushing forward at a quick pace and top developments in the field during 2019 should still be oriented for the rise of natural, functional and sustainable drinks; however, consumers are seeking increased value chain transparency and beverage personalization. Discover below some of the top tendencies for 2019 within the drinks business.

CFER Labs is your partner in drinks R&D. Obtain your free of charge workplan by clicking here.

Healthy energy drinks with alternative sources of energy

Energy drinks are one of the fastest growing products in the global drinks market. This growth has been brought by an escalating evident consumer focus on fitness and health. In 2017, the global energy drinks market stood at USD 55 billion and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% during the forecasted period of 2018-2023, according to figures from Mordor Intelligence. The biggest oportunities for market growth lie in the European continent and in Asia-Pacific region, respectively due to a scarce offer of healthy, zero-calorie, low sugar functional drinks in Europe and increasing income, rising sports activities and urbanization in the Asia-Pacific region.

The caffeine presence in energy drinks is raising moderate levels of concern. As a result, manufacturers may wish to gradually replace caffeine by naturally energetic plant extracts in new launches for 2019, such as green coffee extract or matcha.

The caffeine presence in energy drinks may gradually be replaced by naturally energetic plant extracts in new launches for 2019.

Hyper functional drinks with ethnic and regional ingredients

According to Beverage Daily, consumers are increasingly willing to seek super ingredients in their drinks, such as goji, aloe vera, turmeric, functional spices or matcha, traditionally used as regional ethnic ingredients with known health benefits. Other ingredients, such as microalgae and mushroom extract are also gaining relevance. Consumers will look for convenient, hyper functional drinks during 2019 as part of a beverage industry gradually mixed with the vitamin and supplement industry.

New launches will reflect consumer demand for overall wellness goals, as improved sleep, cognitive function, beauty, weight loss and gut health, being expectable that new products will address deeper health issues as oral and cardiovascular health.

Consumers are increasingly willing to seek super ingredients in their drinks, such as goji, aloe vera, turmeric, functional spices or matcha.

Plant based beverages

More and more people are introducing plant-based products in their diet for health and sustainability claims. Plant based product claims have grown 62% globally from 2013 to 2017, according to figures from NDP Group. The plant-based eating and drinking movement has been promoted by celebrities, athletes, multinational retailers, food and tech companies and countries such as China. There has been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the U.S in the last three years, according to a survey from GlobalData, and 350% in the UK comparing to ten years ago. According to Nielsen, vegetarianism in Portugal rose by 400% in the last decade.

In 2019 there should be a rise in the offer of plant based drinks, such as vegetable milks and drinks from soy, almond, coconut and oats, plant-based protein drinks and also exotically-flavoured malted beverages.

Almond drink leads the category of vegetable milks along with soy and coconut.

Sustainable beverages

Sustainability is growing steadily to be one of the top concerns of consumers in 2019. This is mainly related to plastic unsustainability due to recent environmental scandals and the origin and trade of ingredients. Data from Nielsen and Mintel indicates that consumers are willing to pay more for products that make claims on sustainability, while Imbibe Magazine states that consumers are using the social media to share messages about the responsibility of the purchase. Eco-friendly packaged beverages and the use of internationally certified fair-trade ingredients should become more prevalent in 2019.

Concerns regarding the origin and trade of the ingredients are becoming more prevalent among consumers.

Clean label and simple communication

Consumers are demanding clean labels and a simple communication on their products to know what exactly they consume and at what level, and national government agencies are supporting this interest. In 2019 this trend should continue to gain momentum.

The soft drinks market has witnessed in recent years the biggest percentage of clean label product introduction in Asia, the fastest growth rate region for clean label products. Within the clean label segment, natural colours are witnessing high demand due to organic and functional claims.

According to figures from Mordor Intelligence, 88% of consumers are willing to pay a premium price for products containing naturally sourced ingredients, and close to 80% of the consumers give importance to reading ingredient lists on the product before purchasing.

The trend for clean label beverages will predictably continue to grow during 2019.

CFER Labs is your partner in drinks R&D. Obtain your free of charge workplan by clicking here.

Sources
https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/energy-drinks-market
https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/clean-label-ingredients-market
HTTPS://WWW.BEVERAGEDAILY.COM/ARTICLE/2018/12/05/TOP-FIVE-PREDICTIONS-FOR-2019-BEVERAGE-TRENDS
https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/

 

The way human beings feed themselves strongly influences their physical and emotional balance. Meat products are an excellent source of nutrients and are widely consumed around the world. However, these products are also susceptible to chemical and microbiological deterioration, which creates health risks.

Consumption of contaminated food and water kills 1.8 million people annually. In addition, each person is wasting an average of 150kg of food per year, also due to lack of food conservation.

Packaged meat products arrive at the consumer’s house in good food safety conditions. However, food contamination is a serious concern at the post-opening stage of the package. It is thus urgent to create more advanced solutions of food preservation, which reduce the contamination and increase the shelf-life after the package is opened.

Sliced charcuterie may have an extended shelf-life with the developed technology.

A new technology for the preservation of charcuterie

Researchers at the University of Coimbra, Portugal, and Primor Charcutaria Prima developed a research project to address this problem. New surfactant and polymer systems were developed to promote longer shelf life through the incorporation of consumer safe edible coatings in the meat. Furthermore, this coating prevents the use of the protective N2/CO2 atmosphere in the packaging, which leads to the reduction of the amount of plastic volume used in the packaging, yielding a better environmental impact.

The various types of performed assays included: chemical, physical and microbiological tests to identify coatings with improved bacterial elimination, light scattering and rheology tests to identify the best suited coatings for spray application, and electron microscopy to compare the level of meat degradation with and without coating. Color, taste, texture and odor were continuously monitored throughout the project. After the laboratory tests, the best performance coatings were applied in semi-industrial environment.

This new results will make available to consumers a new generation of preservation for fresh meat products.